YANTRAS - Sacred Symbols as Visual Tools for Meditation & Spiritual Awakening
Yantras - Sacred Diagrams and Their Symbolic Energy Potential
What exactly are Yantras? Do they actually have any beneficial purpose or powers to enhance your life?
Yantras are mystical power diagrams or compositions of geometric shapes and abstract or symbolic elements that correspond to material elements, forms of energy or cosmic forces.
In earlier posts I discussed the chakras in greater depth, with illustrations that depict the 7 major energy centers as circular lotus symbols with varying numbers of petals, colors and Sanskrit letters. Having Tantric origins from ancient Vedic traditions, those symbols are known as yantras. The designs represent various frequencies and qualities associated with each of the spiritual energy centers. But yantras are not only associated with the chakras. Yantras have long been used as instruments for invoking and tapping into spiritual energy for enhancing the focus of meditation, prayers, goals, wishes or objectives.
What is the difference between mandalas and yantras?
Mandalas are basically circular designs symbolic of the universe or the cosmos. In my previous post, I discuss the significance of mandalas across many cultures and traditions. Mandalas can be much more complex and elaborate than yantras. Mandalas may, or may not have any metaphysical or esoteric meaning beyond purely decorative value or personal creative expression. In eastern Vedic philosophies, the two terms are related, where yantras may contain circular mandalas within or as part of their configurations, and mandalas may also contain yantra symbols within their designs.
FORM & FUNCTION
The word “Yantra” from the Sanskrit root sound “yam” means “to sustain, hold or support” the energy inherent in a particular object, form, element or abstract concept. This is achieved through the use of primal symbols, structures and patterns that have spiritual, psychological or psychic associations, energies or influence.
In the Hindu faith and ritual worship, yantras are used commonly to invoke magic spells as charms or amulets. Various types of yantras are designed for specific purposes, to control or influence subtle energy currents and wavelengths. Energized with sacred mantras and rituals, these symbols are enhanced with magical powers to attract or harness positive energies or disperse or repel negative influences.
A few different types and purposes include:
- Yantras of Deities signify spiritual qualities or properties of mythological, religious, archetypal or historical figures associated with the Gods and Goddesses described in the Vedas.
- Astrological or Planetary Yantras are used to harness the energies of the planets to help mitigate inauspicious influences, or amplify auspicious potential of ones astrological chart or transits. Practical uses include finding a suitable marriage partner, enhancing fertility, attracting prosperity, improving health, success, or protecting one from potential harm or misfortune.
- Architectural Yantras use sacred geometry to align with the geomancy (the natural energies and “lay lines” of the Earth), in the design or planning of temples and sacred spaces.
- Numerical Yantras comprised of magical numeric combinations are also used as talismans by arranging sets of numbers that are auspicious for a specific user, or in general.
- Occult Yantras are believed to possess magical powers to fulfill wishes, cure diseases, eliminate debt or attract wealth by tapping into supernatural energy to gain control over the forces of nature.
- Temporary Yantras used for rituals or ceremonies may be drawn on leaves, cloth, paper or the ground, to be discarded after, thrown into the river, as is done with the sacred sand mandalas of Tibetan Buddhist traditions.
Represented as 2-dimensional images, drawings, paintings or etched plates, each yantra will contain specific prescriptions for their effective use. 3-Dimensional yantras can be carved or molded from various materials, clay, stone, crystals or gems. Yantras as talismans and amulets may be made into jewelry of precious or semi precious metals to be worn or carried. Some also inset gemstones prescribed for an individual based on one's astrological influences. It is believed that different stones have the ability to amplify frequencies of the Sun, Moon and the major planets.
Considered the “Mother of all yantras”, the SriYantra (aka Sri Lakshmi Yantra or Supreme Yantra) is an ancient mystical diagram used as an instrument to help remove obstacles, attract wealth, success and wellbeing. Traditionally its colors are the colors of Lakshmi, the Goddess of abundance: pinks, gold, yellow and orange. Sri Yantra is associated with higher states of consciousness, used to activate the third eye or pineal gland through meditation, aligning with one’s higher Divine self within. The design is also associated with sound vibrations, specifically “OM”, (AUM) the mantra of all creation.
Experiments have been conducted using acoustical sounds, musical instruments, notes, pitch, words or vocal chants, to create unique formations and patterns in sand or liquid when vibrated on special plates or membranes. Different sound frequencies cause the dynamic scattering rearrangement of the grains or fluids to form various geometric shapes and patterns. The resulting images are usually somewhat symmetrical in form, similar to mandalas. Early African tribes used the skin of drums sprinkled with grains for fortune telling. Many of the motifs and symbols we see in African art, may have had their origins from this primitive technology. Using cymatic technology, the sound of “OM” being chanted, vibrated through a tonoscope onto a metal plate covered with sand or powder, is said to cause the grains to align, forming the very intricate Sri Yantra image. Curiously the Sri Yantra is not vertically symmetrical.
SYMBOLIC ELEMENTS AND THEIR MEANINGS
Traditional Vedic Yantras are composed of 6 basic design elements: the dot (bindu), circles (chakras), squares (bhupura), triangles (trikona), hexagrams (shatkona), and lotus flowers (padma). Yantras may also include other polygons or star shapes such as pentagrams, swastikas, t-extensions, Sanskrit letters, numbers, inscriptions, colors, or more elaborate illustrative and decorative elements.
Below I describe various elements traditionally used in yantra and mandala designs, along with their symbolic associations. Many cultures have their own symbolic references and significance for these different shapes and forms that may coincide with, add to, or differ from those mentioned here.
The Dot (Bindu Point) is the central point of focus or concentration. It represents the “Third Eye”, the first dimension, unity, oneness, the center point of all creation and of cosmic radiation. In yantras and mandalas, the bindu is usually at the exact center of the design with all other elements radiating outward from that central point.
Circles (aka Chakras) represent the water element (or air in some systems), feminine creative energy, the void, the womb, eggs, seeds, infinite potential, the nucleus, a central point of focus (as the “bindu” dot), cyclic movement, orbits, circulation, revolution, spinning, discs, completion, inclusion, fullness, spheres, our Earth, globes, Sun, Moon or planets, oneness, infinity*, a continuous unbroken path, no beginning and no end, eternity, unity, totality of the universe, orbs, auras, haloes, eyes, clocks, time cycles, wheels (the wheel of Dharma), rings, (wedding rings), eternal love, fruit, hoops, wreaths and coins…
(*Another common symbol for Infinity is the horizontal figure 8 having one continuous line that never ends.)
Triangles (Trikona) represent the Holy Trinity and the number 3. An inverted triangle pointing down represents the alchemical symbol for water, symbolizing a downward flow, the female “yoni”, Shakti (the Divine Feminine energy), the manifestation of the material and the spiritual. Pointing upward it signifies the fire element, rising energy, ascending, fiery emotions, passion, love, hate, anger, spiritual aspirations, and the forceful masculine Shiva energy. Triangles also represent pyramids and the all seeing “eye of providence”. They can also symbolize mountains, peaks, levels of hierarchy, arrows, direction and creative energy. Crossed Triangles represent different types of energy as stars or shapes formed by overlaying or combining multiple triangles.
Squares (Bhupura) represent the earth element, structure, stability, foundations, the material world, the physical self, man or masculine energy, honesty, dependability, morality, virtue, wisdom, cubes, building blocks, the number 4, right angles, straight lines… Is it any wonder we use the term “square” to describe someone who is extremely conservative, conventional, straight and proper? Rectangles are just elongated squares with similar qualities.
The Magic Square is an arrangement of numbers in a square grid of smaller squares that horizontally, vertically and diagonally all add up to the same total number. A simple magic square uses the numbers 1–9 in 9 squares, or 3 rows of 3 squares. Each row and diagonal direction adds up to the number 15.
T-Shape Protrusions extending from mandala and yantra squares, represent “doorways or gates” to the sacred worlds from the material world.
Other Equilateral Polygons:
- 5 equal sides = Pentagon
- 6 sides = Hexagon
- 7 sides = Heptagon
- 8 sides = Octagon
- 9-sided = Nonagon
- 10-sided = Decagon
- 11-sided = Hendecagon
- 12-sided = Dodecagon
- 13 sides = Tridecagon...
Though most yantras are horizontally symmetrical, some contain vertically irregular (non-equilateral) polygons.
Stars in general represent the heavens, heavenly bodies, light, spirit, and the battle between light and darkness, good and evil (as the fallen angel). A star can be an auspicious omen. When we see a shooting star we make a wish. They can symbolize good fortune, luck, fame, charisma, guidance... and like polygons, have different associations according to the number of points and the shape ratio from the central radius to the points.
5-Pointed Star / Pentagram: Formed by drawing 5 straight continuous lines, it is associated with magic, spells, protection against evil. The # 5 vibration (5 points / 5 lines) represents the 5 elements (earth/matter, water/fluids, fire/energy, air/breath and ether/soul or spirit), in Chinese / eastern traditions (earth water, fire, metal and wood). It is recognized as an ancient Pagan symbol and the symbol of man, resembling a human figure with arms outstretched. The association of the inverted pentagram with evil and Satanic worship came about in fairly recent history in the late 19th century with the revival of Paganism. In the mid 20th century it became associated with Satanic worship and evil (in 1966 adopted by the Church of Satan). A Pentacle is a 5-pointed star with a circle around it which is used as a symbol for Wicca.
6-pointed Star of David/ Seal of Soloman (Shatkona) - a motif found in many yantras, is formed by upward and downward triangles aligned to create the unification or balance symbol of male/female, Shiva/Shakti energies, the cause of all creation. This is the symbol of the heart chakra, the central point of balance between the 3 lower chakras that represent instinctual animal energies and the 3 higher spiritual and intuitive chakras.
7-Pointed Star / Heptagram is associated with the 7 planets as visible to the ancients (Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars. Jupiter & Saturn). In Wicca and pagan traditions, it is known as a Septagram, and is associated with the Elven Star, Faeries, universal balance, and the Seal of Babylon.
The 8-pointed Star / Octagram is a common form in yantras, made of 2 overlapping squares 45° to each other. This symbol is used in many ancient traditions. In Hinduism this is the star of Lakshmi, and represents wealth, prosperity, health and victory.
The 9-pointed Star shown empty, is known as the symbol for the Baha'i faith. (The pentagram also represents the Baha'i faith.) Nine is the number of faith, the highest single digit, which also symbolizes completion. The 9-pointed star made from 3 overlapping triangles is the symbol for the Enneagram, a numerology system of 9 basic personality types.
The 10-pointed Star / Dekagram is formed by 2 overlapping pentagrams one pointing up and one pointing down. It represents the union of opposites, and is associated with the Kabbalistic system's 10 Sephirot of the Tree of Life.
The 12-pointed Star / Dodekagram is made from 4 overlapping triangles, or 2 hexagrams. It represents the 12 signs and houses of the zodiac, 12 months of the year, the 12 Hebrew tribes, 12 disciples of Jesus, plus other associations with the number 12. Twelve is also a number of completion representing a full yearly cycle.
Stars with many points can also represent the Sun with rays radiating outward.
The Sun is a symbol of light, warmth, joy, shining, gold, masculine energy, fire…Many cultures and religions have Sun Deities and worship.
Crescents symbolize the Moon, nighttime, the new waxing or waning Moon, akasha, the Goddesses of the hunt Artemis and Diana, the horned God, or a circle divided. Paired with a star in the center it is the symbol for Islam. Crescents are also associated with the water element and feminine energy.
Arcs: Related to crescents, arcs symbolize a half circle, curves, rainbows (luck, promise, hope), a rising Sun, arches, bridges (crossing over), passage, transition, connection, initiation, the expansive sky, ascension, protection, canopies (the Jewish wedding “chuppah” is a symbol of the protection and home of the new couple), domes, gateways, portals, openings, potential (also pregnancy). Arcs and arches are common elements in architecture, temples and churches. They can also represent archery bows, efficiency, stability and strength (the ability to carry or support tremendous weight as a building structure). Inverted arcs can be symbolic of boats, bowls, cups or containers. In Feng Shui arched furnishings and doorways are avoided due to their negative associations with tombstones and death.
Lotus Petals/ Divine Lotus (Padma) pointing outward from a circle represent the opening of the mind, blossoming, increasing awareness and understanding. The lotus flower is a symbol for the attainment of enlightenment. It represents balance, purity and beauty, ascending from the muddy murky waters to blossom in the light.
Crosses: There are many types of crosses. A simple cross formed by 2 equal lines centered 90° over each other is the most universally used, known as the Greek Cross, often associated with medicine. The Roman or Christian cross has a longer descending line, a symbol of the crucifixion of Christ. A cross made with 3 lines or 6 legs (like as asterisk), stands for the sextile (60° aspects of a 360° astrological chart). Displayed in red or blue with a caduceus snake staff in the center, it symbolizes 6 aspects of emergency medicine. A double cross made with 4 lines creating 8 legs is a symbol for revival. The Ankh is a cross with a hollow circle or oval replacing the top line of the cross. It is the ancient Egyptian symbol for life. Celtic crosses incorporate a circle aligned over the center of the cross. A cross enclosed within a circle is the symbol of the Earth, the 4 seasons, and the 4 directions in as in the Native American Medicine Wheel. The Gnostic Cross has a a circle with an enclosed cross placed atop of a Christian cross. The Maltese Cross is made up of 4 chevron V-shapes joined at their vertex in the center. The Rose Cross, symbol of the Rosicrucians has slight rosette extensions on each end and a blooming rose at the center. There are many more cross variations, but these are a few of the most common.
Gammadion Cross (Gamma Cross/ Gammata Cross) is composed of 4 Greek “gamma” letters (that are shaped like an inverted “L”). The symbol is also known as a swastika. In Hinduism it symbolizes prosperity, good luck and protection. It is sometimes represented with curved outer leg variations, extra leg extensions or containing 4 dots within the symbol. This is also the symbol for the Jain religion. Alternate versions may be formed with double S shapes
Swastikas: Before being adopted by the Nazis to become associated with hate, evil and genocide, swastikas actually had a 12,000-year history as a sacred symbol in many cultures. In Buddhism and parts of Asia swastikas were associated with the wheel of dharma and the footprint of the Buddha. The swastika symbol was a common design motif in Islamic and Persian art and pottery, as well as the arts and languages from Africa, Egypt, China, Native American, Mesoamerican traditions and other Indigenous cultures. Swastikas represent movement (like a pinwheel). The clockwise version represents the Sun and male energy, and counterclockwise, the Moon or feminine energy, which later came to be associated with evil chaotic forces. Some Celtic swastikas have rounded outer legs that form a broken outer circle.
Triskele (Triskelion): Swastikas typically have 4 bent or L-shaped legs of a cross, though some have 3 legs (called Triskele), found in many European cultures as a symbol of power. A similar symbol, the Trinacria has 3 bent human legs radiating from the winged head of Medusa. This is the symbol for the Italian Island of Sicily.
Spirals represent movement of circular expansion of graduating outward growth patterns as referenced in the Fibonacci sequence for the Golden Mean. Spirals in nature can be found in the nautilus shell, the sacred conch trumpet, curling waves of the ocean, the formation of storms, galaxies, flowers, leaves and pinecones.
The Yin-Yang Symbol is an ancient symbol associated with Tai Chi, Chi Kung, Taoism and Chinese philosophy and cosmology. The form is a black and white circle divided in half by a central “S curve”, where each side appears to gracefully flow into the other. The black yin half contains a white dot and the white yang half a black dot. It represents duality and the balance between opposite forces or energies: light/dark, male/female, positive/negative, day/night, Sun/Moon, white/black, action/rest, hard/soft, warm/cool, active/passive, etc… It's is a symbol for balance, harmony and the interconnection of all life. Within the darkness there is the potential for light. Within the light contains the seed of darkness. You can't have one without the other. If there were only total darkness, there could be no visible forms. In total light you need the dark contrast for form to exist.
Deities: Yantra and mandala imagery may depict Divine personalities in human, historic, mythological or symbolic form. Archetypal beings are the basis for various deities and spirit entities of many religions. The Tarot and other divination systems use symbols and symbolic archetypes to tap into intuitive wisdom as tools for life guidance as well as understanding human qualities.
Abstractions, Patterns & Nature: Abstract forms, patterns, motifs and colors may represent natural elements such as clouds for the heavens or air, blue swirls or wavy lines for water, dark blue or black for darkness, the void, white for purity, concentric rings or green for growth, zig-zag patterns and reds for energy or fire, arrows for direction and diamonds for wealth.
Dharmic Ritual Objects used in meditation (like the Vajra Dorje), and other symbolic elements common in pictorial yantras and mandalas include: sacred animals, shells, plants, flowers, weapons, phallic symbols, tools, shields, seals, hands, eyes and letters.
Hearts have long been associated with love, compassion, the spiritual heart, trust, peace, harmony and romance. Hearts can imply sensuality as they resemble breasts, buttocks, leaves, seeds or budding flowers. Interestingly, one theory about the origin of the heart symbol, is its resemblance to an herb that was used for contraception by the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is more likely that this shape comes from the early medical drawings of the human heart.
Teardrops formed by a circle or oval with an upward pointed peak on top, represent water, raindrops, fluids, tears or sadness. In jewelry a teardrop shape can represent the memory of a loved one who has passed on. Inverted they may be used as a quote bubble or a pin-pointing symbol on maps.
Chevrons are V-shaped symbols, historically used on shields and coats of arms to represent military rank or stripes. Personally I've always associated them with wings or birds to represent flight and freedom (because they resemble a bird flying, and the chevron formation of geese in flight). So even though that's not their common historic meaning, it shows how different symbols may be subject to individual psychological impressions or interpretation.
Strings, Cords & Rope: In Kabbalah traditions, red string bracelets are worn as talismans for protection. Cords can represent the umbilical cord, relationship ties, and the “silver cord” that ties the soul to the body. Ropes can symbolize bondage, chains, being tied down. Arm cords, ribbons or bands are sometimes worn as a remembrance symbol for a loved one who has passed on.
Knots: symbolize marriage and tools to bind magical powers. Celtic Knots (aka Mystic Knots) are endless knots that represent loyalty, faith, eternity, with each design having a specific significance. The Endless Knot (śrīvatsa) is one of 8 auspicious sacred symbols (Ashtamangala), which, according to Hindu, Buddhist and Jain traditions, represents love, unity, intertwining wisdom and compassion.
Colors have always been used to symbolize different energies, qualities, emotions and associations. (see my “Chakras Part 2” post for detailed descriptions of the symbolism of many colors.)
A few more common symbols recognized across many cultures include:
Animals: lions, cats, bears, wolves, dogs, snakes/serpents, turtles/tortoise, alligator, lizards, frogs, horses, buffalo, cows/bull, ram/sheep, goats, pigs/boar, rabbits, fish, dolphin, octopus, crab, snails, shells, wings, birds/feathers, doves, eagles, swan, peacock, ducks, geese, chicken/rooster, eggs, falcon, owl, cranes, elephant, mice/rats, squirrel, beaver, bats, monkey, deer, antelope/gazelle…
(Each symbol may vary in significance among different groups. For example: The fish as a symbol for Christianity represents faith and abundance from the Biblical story of the miracle of the fishes and loaves. In astrology two fishes swimming in opposite directions is the sign for the constellation and age of Pisces. In Greco-Roman mythology, fish represented change and transformation. In Chinese culture, fish represent prosperity, fertility and a happy marriage. As one of 8 auspicious symbols of Buddhism, a pair of carp symbolize happiness, prosperity and luck.)
Insects: scarab beetles, dragonflies, butterflies, moths, scorpion, locust, spiders, caterpillar, bees, mantis…
Mythological Creatures: angels, dragons, mermaids, unicorn, phoenix, pegasus, griffin, centaur, minotaur, witches, demons, devils, ghosts, cherubs, elves, fairies, gremlin, gargoyles, gnomes, cyclops medusa…
Plants: flowers, roses, clovers, leaves, seeds, pinecones, fruit, wreaths, vines, trees, grain, palm, mushrooms…
Nature: lightning bolts, rainbows, mountains, volcano, forests, rivers, rain, clouds, eclipse, crystals, gems, globes, planets, orbits…
Ceremonial Objects: crowns, orb and sceptre, thrones, altars, pillars, challis, cups, wands, candles, candelabras (menorah), incense/burners, torches, bells, flags, garlands, malas (meditation/prayer beads), sash, offering scarf (khata), flywhisk, books, scrolls, prayer wheels, canopies, parasols/umbrellas, fans, mirrors, lamps, urns, pitcher, vases, vessels…
Tools & Weapons: Keys, tridents, swords, staffs, spears, horseshoes, anchors, hammer, sickle, knives, axe (+ double headed axe), cross bow, clubs…
Human Body Symbols: eyes, mouth, ears, hands, (Hamsa), feet, legs, hair, heart, skulls, bones, crossbones, genitals…
Musical Instruments: Bells, gongs, harps, flutes, drums, lutes, trumpet, shofar, rattles, shakers, cymbals, bells, chimes, sacred conch,
Lists of symbols and their meanings can fill volumes, much more than is practical for this post. In future posts I will share more on sacred geometry, geomancy and other sacred symbols.
UNIVERSAL & MODERN SYMBOLS
Throughout time symbols have been used as a form of communication. All languages, letters, alphabets and numbers were all created from symbols. Some symbols are universal, while others may only be recognizable to a particular region, culture, professional field or group. Most religions have unique ceremonial objects and symbols. Secret societies such as the Freemasons have always used esoteric and occult symbols in their secret teachings. Chemistry, biology, alchemy, math, astronomy and other sciences all use symbols to represent different elements, compounds, processes and mathematical equations. Astrology uses symbols for the planets, zodiac signs and aspect divisions of a chart.
Symbols are everywhere, from our clothing, to the cars we drive, the flags we fly and currency we spend. Road signs use symbols and colors to indicate where to stop, yield, danger, crossings, directions, do not enter, and driving conditions. Fabric label symbols show cleaning and care instructions. Product symbols may indicate if the contents are toxic, types of plastics or icons regarding recycling. Our digital devices are full of app symbols and dozens of emojis to add extra feelings or images to our words. The email icon looks like a tiny envelope. A magnifying glass glyph indicates we can zoom in. The icon for Bluetooth was taken from ancient Norse Runes. Symbols on our keyboards allow multiple functions besides typing text, numbers or punctuation that perform specific actions (go forward, back, eject + various “F” keys). All social media apps have symbol icons as their logos. The icon for Instagram looks like a camera with the circular lens in the center.
Symbolic iconography has never been more prevalent than today, where every business draws upon universal symbols to represent company logos, trademarks and brands. Major corporations spend fortunes to develop logos based on ancient occult symbolism to create positive psychological and subliminal associations.
As a graphic designer, a lot more goes into creating a logo than meets the eye. The most simple glyph could involve dozens of sketches, ideas, concepts, research, brainstorming, testing, revisions and refinement to develop an effective trademark. A successful logo can have the power to imply a story or image, create emotion, establish brand or tribal identity, inspire loyalty, trust or illicit a response – all subliminally, in an instant at first glance, without offering any words or explanation.
Many social causes have adopted or created new symbols to bring awareness and support to their missions and goals. The popular “peace symbol”, a circle containing a cross with the side arms slanted down, was designed in 1958 by Gerald Holtom, a Dutch conscientious objector, as a campaign to promote nuclear disarmament. The symbol is sometimes interpreted to represent a broken gun for “cease fire” or “broken arms”. The designer claimed he created the symbol to represent a person standing with arms open but lowered as a gesture of surrender or non-aggression.
Ribbons have been used traditionally to symbolize hope, a wish or prayer. Some may remember the hit song from the 1970s; "Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree”, written about the hope of a woman for her husband to return from being held hostage in Iran. Wearing yellow ribbons became a symbol for hope for loved ones to return safely from wars. In Bahia Brazil there's a spiritual custom of giving someone a ribbon (a lembrança fita) from a church associated with miracles and healing, as good luck charms to grant a personal wish or prayer. The ribbon is tied around the wrist with 3 knots, and worn until it falls off. In the early 1980s The pink ribbon loop became a symbol for hope in finding a cure for breast cancer. The ribbon symbol has been adopted by advocacy groups for many causes, from red ribbons to promote AIDS awareness, rainbow ribbons to represent the LGBT community, purple for Alzheimer's disease awareness, green for bipolar disorder, and also awareness about climate change.
A newer symbol for the environmental movement is the Extinction Symbol - a circle representing the Earth, containing two triangles joined at their lower and upper apex points to form an hourglass shape. The symbol is meant to serve as a warning that time is running out for many species, including humans, unless we collectively start making major changes.
Part of my mission here is to promote awareness and solutions to many of these social and global environmental issues, to help preserve and heal our beautiful planet so that we may live peacefully in balance with nature. Offering information about yoga, meditation, tools, tips and products to support health, healing and pure living is what PureLifePlanet.com is all about.
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© 2018 by Marsha Silvestri
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